Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is a chronic respiratory condition that currently affects 30% of the world’s population  and 19% of Australians . AR often coexists with asthma [3-5]; 30% of people with AR have asthma while 80% of people with asthma have AR [6-8]. AR can negatively impact on health-related quality of life (QOL) - sleep, mental and voluntary motor function and participation in social activities [1, 8, 9]. AR can also create a significant economic burden, direct costs to patients i.e. $9.4 billion in Australia  and indirect costs caused by absenteeism and presenteeism (decreased productivity at work/school) .
AR is rarely present in isolation. The classical symptoms of AR include nasal congestion, nasal itching, sneezing and rhinorrhea. Some patients also experience ocular symptoms (rhinoconjunctivitis) such as tears, itching and redness of the eyes.
The management of AR is articulated in a series of international evidence-based guidelines, including the Allergic Rhinitis and its impact on Asthma (ARIA) . Unfortunately, the translation of these guidelines into practice over time has been slow and requires evidence-based strategies. Currently, a majority of people with AR in the community are experiencing moderate-severe symptoms and only 15% are selecting appropriate medication.
There are clinical interventions for AR articulated/promoted and passively disseminated through a multitude of professional organisations. None of these clinical interventions are evidence based with no evaluation of implementation, efficacy or impact.
Hence, the following issues relating to AR management/implementing guidelines and their implementation remain:
Medication in the community pharmacy
- Different AR medications are available in different countries
- Prices of AR medications vary in different healthcare settings and global guidelines try and cover all these differences
- AR medication scheduling and arrangements different globally
- In Australia, AR medication scheduling differs in different states e.g. AR medications, which are available behind the counter (S3) in Queensland but available on the shelf (S2) in the supermarket (limited supply pack) in NSW.
- AR has historically been managed with oral antihistamine, currently considered an “old” drug. While new drugs such as intranasal corticosteroids have been introduced and are currently the most effective treatment for AR.
- People with AR predominantly self-medicate their AR through self-selecting treatment in the community pharmacy.
Healthcare Professionals role in AR management
- AR Guidelines are difficult to translate into practice.
- High self-management by AR patients’ results in limited engagement with HCPs.
- The differential diagnosis of AR can be difficult as AR may appear with different combinations of symptoms.
Patients’ management – belief and perception
- 35% - 55% of AR patients self-diagnosing their condition [11-13].
- Patients often underreport and underestimate the severity of their AR symptoms [14-17].
- Patients treat their AR sub-optimally often lacking knowledge themselves while underutilizing their HCP [12, 15, 18-20].
- This suboptimal medication management leads to poor control of symptoms [21-23].
Patients develop treatment fatigue; a sense of having explored all available options with regards to treating their AR and having exhausted any desire to pursue further investigations or treatment options.
This study will evaluate the impact of an “AR Clinical Management Pathway”, a clinical pathway/process based on Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2017 evidence and the framework, on the medication management of AR.
This will provide the first global evidence for a translatable process to be implemented by pharmacists into the community pharmacy.
This clinical pathway would be the first evidence-based clinical
pathway. While there are many recommendations available in Australian
healthcare organisations, currently there is no evidence-based clinical
pathway which guides the recommendations and has been shown to not only
change the behavior of pharmacist management, but can also be
implemented in pharmacy.
Program Type: Honours, Masters of Philosophy, Doctor of Philosophy programs.
Research Group: Quality Use of Respiratory Medicines Group
Supervisors: Professor Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich and the Quality Use of Respiratory Medicines Group in collaboration with international collaborators will supervise the candidate.
Synopsis and Research Plan: This research will be conducted in 2 phases:
- Phase 1: will take the form of a cross-sectional, pre-post intervention study in which the feasibility of implementing the AR Clinical Management Pathway (AR-CMaP) will be tested.
- Phase 2 will involved the implementation of the AR-CMaP in the community pharmacy setting and the evaluation of it in terms of clinical, humanistic and economic impact on the patient, healthcare system and society.
Significance: As a result of this research, we expect to achieve an evidence-based clinical pathway to implement in the community pharmacy which will:
- Improve AR management by increasing the proportion of AR patients who select optimal AR medication.
- Provide evidence on the effective of this clinical pathway to change the current AR management in the community pharmacy setting.
- Provide a framework for pharmacy practice and a pathway for integrated care of AR globally.
- Improve health outcomes for people with AR in the community.
This clinical pathway will be incorporated into future national and international AR guidelines; ARIA, PSA, Pharmacy Guilds, National Asthma Council Australia etc.
Funding: Funding is available for Phase 1 of this research. Funding for Phase 2 will be sought in the future.
Candidate: A healthcare professional background is favourable but not essential.
Contact: Professor Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia.firstname.lastname@example.org, 9114 0145 or 0414 015 614.
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